Tag: narcan

Is Making Narcan Over The Counter A Good Decision?

Selling Narcan Over the Counter Narcan OVer the Counter

Naloxone (Narcan) has recently been released in limited proportions for sale over the counter in select pharmacies and states. Selling Narcan over the counter is a bold move in what many are looking at as part of the war against drugs, specifically the war against the opioid epidemic sweeping across our country. Others see it as a cop-out for junkies – a get out of jail free card in the case of an overdose. As with anything, the lines are blurry, and the bottom line is that if lives can be saved and fatal overdoses can be prevented, it is probably a good thing.

What is Narcan?

Narcan (naloxone) is an opiate antidote. Opiates include drugs like heroin, morphine, codeine, oxycodone, methadone, and Vicodin. Taking too much or a combination of any of these drugs can cause an overdose, symptoms of which include the slowing or stopping of breathing, leading to loss of consciousness and even death. Once a person who is ODing is in this state, it is incredibly difficult to wake them up.

Narcan blocks the effects of opioids and reverses an overdose in a patient that has taken too much of a drug. The opiates are essentially knocked out of receptors in the brain, even if the opiate was taken in addition to alcohol or another drug that can further suppress the immune system. After Narcan is administered, the overdosing person should begin to breathe more regularly, and they will be easier to wake. There are no known negative effects of Narcan, and nothing will happen to a person who is not ODing and accidentally takes the drug.

Narcan Over The Counter Is Controversial

Narcan over the counter LighthouseThere are many people who maintain that the only reason a person would get Narcan over the counter would be if they expected that they or someone they are close with will overdose. In their eyes, it’s a way of prepping for a big Friday night party, and as mentioned earlier in the article, a get out of jail free card.

In the eyes of supporters, Narcan is preventative. For the mothers and fathers who have an addict child, to the wives of an addict husband, and to the child of an addict mother – it is something to have around in the case of an overdose that can prevent death. It isn’t just for addicts – accidental overdose could happen to anyone who has prescription opiates on hand, so in a sense shouldn’t it be sold with every opiate prescription given out?

America’s Opiate Epidemic

It’s no secret that opiates are taking a huge toll on Americans. The U.S. is in the throes of an opiate epidemic and it is a long, sad, and messy road to get out of it. In 2014, 47,055 people died of a drug overdose, making it the number one leading cause of accidental death. It is a problem that is nationwide and is destroying lives regardless of age, race, class, and location. If Narcan can help reduce these numbers and save some lives, why wouldn’t we make it as available as possible?

Is Narcan Coming Soon to a School Near You?

High School Heroin Overdoses

keeping narcan in schools to avoid heroin overdose

It’s the start of the school year. That means parents everywhere are buying their children pencils, notebooks, TI-89 graphing calculators, and opioid overdose kits.

Wait…what? Okay, parents aren’t buying their children overdose kits, but a new trend is emerging in middle and high schools across the country – they’re stocking Narcan.

Narcan, the brand name for the anti-overdose drug naloxone, is a fast acting medication that can completely reverse the effects of a heroin or painkiller overdose in minutes.

In the midst of an ever-growing heroin epidemic, Narcan saves lives. It’s also fairly controversial and not without its fair share of opponents. Still, with heroin and painkillers being used by younger and younger people – Narcan in schools offers some serious benefits.

In fact, the National Association of School Nurses is in support of all schools in the United States stocking up on the drug.

Beth Mattey, their President, had the following to say,

“We’re facing an epidemic…People are dying from drug overdoses, opioid drug overdoses. We need to be able to address the emergency” (The Seattle Times).

Narcan in Schools Isn’t Just for Kids

That’s an important point to make! While the primary purpose of keeping naloxone in schools is keeping our children safe, it’s not just for them.

It can also be used to save the lives of a parent or school employee who overdoses. While it’s scary to think about a student’s mother, father, teacher, or principal using drugs…it does happen.

Not to mention that students in one district in Rhode Island responded favorably to the introduction of Narcan.

Kathleen Gage, a nurse at Pilgrim High School in Warwick, RI, showed juniors in a health class how to administer Narcan and what to do to get it at a local pharmacy. Far from being apprehensive or scared, Gage says students were “…really enthusiastic that this could reverse an overdose, and they would have the tool to do it” (CBS News).

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What States Have Narcan in Their Schools?

That’s the question, right? Where is this happening? What states have approved Narcan for use in middle and high schools?

Well, so far it’s a small group. As mentioned above, Rhode Island has approved this measure. In fact, all middle, junior high, and high schools are now required to have naloxone in the nurse’s office.

Some districts in Vermont have approved the use of Narcan. Schools in and around Hartford are now stocking the lifesaving medicine. This is after an initial push not to stock the drug.

Delaware recently passed a resolution that allows schools to carry Narcan kits. According to news sources, around forty high schools in the state have received donated auto-injector kits.

Massachusetts is also on board. Nurses in over 200 school districts have been officially trained on how to administer Narcan. Some districts are even keeping the drug on premise.

There are also laws in both New York and Kentucky that allow school officials to carry and administer Narcan on school grounds. While there doesn’t seem to be any official rules regarding stocking the medicine at schools, this is certainly a step in the right direction.

What do you think about allowing schools to stock up or Narcan? Let us know on social media!

New Hampshire’s Big Ideas about Expanding Access to Treatment

Is This the Future of Treatment in America?

addiction treatment in NH

The only way the United States is going to recover from our collective addiction to painkillers and heroin is through some drastic action. Lighthouse Recovery Institute firmly believes this and stands behind anyone who offers change.

That’s why we were so excited to read this interview between New Hampshire Public Radio and Tym Rourk. Rourk holds the title of Chairman of the Governor’s Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention, Treatment, and Recovery.

That’s quite a mouthful. In addition to his work on the Governor’s Commission, he does other recovery advocacy work at the New Hampshire Charitable Foundation. They’re an organization that’s dedicated to improving the quality of life in New Hampshire.

Okay, enough about Mr. Rourk. What’s New Hampshire currently doing, and what measures are they considering, to cut down on opioid substance abuse? Find out below!

A heroin vaccine? Sounds like science fiction…

Innovative Recovery Services

According to the New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services, in 2013 alone there were 1,540 people admitted to state-funded treatment programs for heroin abuse. There were another 1,297 admitted for painkiller abuse.

According to the Union Leader, in 2014 alone approximately 320 people died of drug related causes. 97 of those deaths were due to a heroin overdose, 143 were related to fentanyl, and 39 were due to heroin and fentanyl.

Both of which are long ways to tell a short story – New Hampshire is caught in the midst of the larger opioid epidemic sweeping across America. Guess what though? NH is fighting back!

Two private treatment centers opened their doors this year. That’s in addition to the numerous state-funded programs and privately owned sober living residences. Not to mention the laws New Hampshire has recently passed.

These include a Good Samaritan law that protects individuals who call police, EMTs, or other first responders and increasing public access to Narcan (naloxone). Like their southern neighbor Massachusetts, NH has made Narcan widely available to both first responders and substance abuse patients and their families.

As Rourk is quick to point out, however, Narcan isn’t a silver bullet. “This is a rescue drug that can save someone from an overdose. It is not treatment. It does not support long-term recovery” (NHPR).

So, what about treatment and long-term recovery?

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Expand Medicaid to Cover Treatment

One of the areas that recovery advocates are trying to expand is the scope of Medicaid coverage at treatment centers.

New Hampshire’s version of Medicaid is called the Health Protection Program. It’s currently available to around 40,000 individuals. According to Rourk, the Health Protection Program allowed 1,800 people to attend a treatment center they otherwise wouldn’t have been able to afford during the seven-month period between September 2014 and March 2015.

Even accounting for relapses following primary treatment, that’s a lot of saved lives!

In an unfortunate twist of fate, it looks like the Health Protection Plan is going to expire in December of 2016. Its continued funding remains uncertain and is one of the many reasons for New Hampshire’s recent budget predicament.

Without Medicaid, without a state backed guarantee of payment, it becomes difficult for many treatment centers to help low-income individuals. It isn’t impossible, of course, but it does complicate the situation.

In the absence of treatment centers, more traditional recovery options, like AA and NA, become vital.

Can you spot the heroin addict? We bet not

The Difference Between Treatment & Recovery

new hampshire state house
the New Hampshire State House

Make no mistake, there’s a very large difference between treatment and recovery. While recovery encompasses the entire and life-long process of sobriety, treatment is only the first step.

So, while treatment centers play a vital role in giving people access to recovery, they’re not the only way someone can get better.

Melissa Silvey, Director of Public Health and Substance Misuse Prevention at Goodwin Community Health, a NH community health center, hit on the increasingly public role people in long-term recovery are stepping into,

“The recovery community has always been kind of in the church basement, but they’re coming out loud and strong and they’re not scared to mention their name” (Union Leader).

This type of personal approach, this one-on-one fight against addiction, may very well be the future of treatment in America.

When asked about the difference between treatment and recovery, Tym Rourk responded with an absolutely amazing statement. More than simply answering the question, he summed up what recovery is all about.

I’ve excerpted Rourk’s remark here in its entirety. It’s a bit long, but well worth the read. It’s a great way to sum up the focus of this article and the larger focus of New Hampshire’s substance abuse prevention efforts.

“The way I like to phrase it is that treatment is really a clinical intervention. This is a healthcare, medical model where someone who is diagnosed with a substance use disorder receives specialized care from a licensed drug and alcohol counselor, perhaps a psychiatrist, a mental health counselor, or social worker. Recovery is really about how people live with a chronic illness. Once that treatment ends, for those who need that kind of clinical intervention…addiction is a chronic illness. There is no cure for it. People don’t recover in treatment. They find recovery in treatment, but they really recover in community. So recovery is programs and it’s about how we build social supports and ongoing peer-based services that allow people in recovery to connect with a positive, healthy community that can sustain their sobriety over the rest of their life” (NHPR.org).

The Newest & Most Surprising Anti-Heroin Bill

Illinois is Shaking Things Up

As the prescription opioid and heroin epidemic rage across the country, few areas are harder hit than the Midwest. States like Michigan, Ohio, and Illinois are suffering hundreds of deaths, and thousands more overdoses, each year.

heroin abuse laws

Consider that in 2013 alone 583 Illinois residents passed away as a result of heroin overdose. That isn’t taking into account painkillers or any other prescription medication fatalities. This number jumped to well over 600 in 2014.

So, when it comes time to fight back, these states have historically taken a unique and proactive approach. In late May, the Illinois State Senate continued this trend. They passed a bill with several innovative approaches to fighting opioid abuse.

The bill, House Bill 1, is now sitting on the desk of Governor Bruce Rauner and awaiting his signature. It remains to be seen whether he’ll sign it into law.

Already, though, there are rumblings from policy makers about the proposed cost. No one is sure exactly how much the bill would cost taxpayers, but estimates place it between $25 and $58 million.

That’s a large chunk of change! Critics are also concerned about the shifting attitude around drug abuse. HB1 comes on the heels of medical marijuana legislation that was passed on the very same day.

Regardless, the people of Illinois have spoken. HB1, passed in a sweeping Senate vote after being passed in an equally landslide House vote, is what Illinois citizens want.

Senator Dan Kotowski, a sponsor of the bill, believes in its potential to do good. When asked about it, he responded,

“We’re moving forward in the right direction to be able to protect children and families from the ravages of heroin abuse…I think it’s a very essential and pivotal way of addressing this heroin epidemic” (Chicago Tribune).

Illinois isn’t the only state to shake things up with heroin laws. Find out how New Jersey is making waves with their laws!

What Does HB1 Actually Do?

It’s one thing to say a bill is sweeping and progressive. It’s another to see it in action. How HB1 will fair in action remains to be seen (if it’s even signed into law). For now, though, let’s take a look at what this piece of legislation proposes.

The bill focuses on a few major areas. First, it would expand drug courts and jail diversion programs. Rather than locking up heroin addicts, they’ll be shuttled into treatment programs.

HB1 will require many first responders to carry Narcan (naloxone). This increase in access would be funded through a grant program and give Narcan to police, paramedics, fire fighters, and possibly school nurses.

Next, the bill would create parity between Medicaid and private insurance. Basically, HB1 would require state Medicaid programs to pay for addiction treatment. It would also require those payouts to be on par with private insurance.

Finally, HB1 would institute a prescription drug disposal program. Although the details on this particular program remain vague, it would be some sort of collaboration between local agencies (police, etc.) and citizens.

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Critics of the Bill

I mentioned above that HB1 isn’t without its fair share of criticism. Although the bill was passed in the senate with an overwhelming majority (only four senators voted against it), it isn’t universally popular.

Critics of the bill argue that these proposed measures are merely preventative and don’t target the causes and conditions of addiction. They argue that policies should be enacted to help identify the underlying reasons people use heroin in the first place.

Perhaps this argument stems from the high cost of HB1. Remember, the final price tag isn’t set in stone, but it’s thought to cost the state around $40 million. This is coming on the heels of an already astronomical budget deficit (over $3 billion).

Still, for all the critics out there, the majority of officials and citizens are in support of anything that can help stem the tide of heroin deaths. Senator Michael Connelly echoed this sentiment. He said,

“Yes, there are concerns about how we pay for this and how we pay for that…tell that to the parents in my town. Tell that to the parents throughout the state, whose children’s lives have spiraled out of control, and they lose their child” (Chicago Tribune).

It’s clear Illinois needs a solution. This bill looks like a mighty good one to me.

Learn about the changing face of heroin abuse & overdose…

Massachusetts Won’t Arrest Addicts Seeking Help

An Innovative Approach

Massachusetts has long been ahead of the curve when it comes to social issues. The first state to legalize gay marriage, Massachusetts has a track record of implementing models for social equality that catch on across the nation.

police wont arrest addicts seeking drug treatment
image via Wikimedia Commons

Let’s hope their latest innovation catches on. I’m talking about how police in the town of Gloucester, MA will provide treatment to addicts seeking help, rather than locking them up.

In a move that’s sure to rattle some chains, Gloucester Chief of Police Leonard Campanello announced recently that any addict who walks into his station and asks for help will get it. It doesn’t matter if they have drugs on them. It doesn’t matter if they’re shaking and sweating. They’ll get treatment rather than jail.

This new way to fight heroin and painkiller addiction couldn’t come at a more pivotal time. Consider that since January, four Gloucester residents have already overdosed and died. Consider that upwards of 1,000 Massachusetts residents died from opioid related overdoses in 2014. Those are some stark figures.

It’s clear a new approach to fighting drugs is needed. Campanello may offer just that. A former narcotics detective, Campanello believes opioid addiction is a disease, a treatable disease, no different from cigarette addiction.

He’s said, “The reasons for the difference in care between a tobacco addict and an opiate addict is stigma and money…Petty reasons to lose a life” (Boston.com).

That’s a hell of an attitude to have! Levelheaded assessment and action like that of Campanello and his officers seem like just what the doctor ordered. Find out how the Gloucester program will work below.

Painkiller addiction skyrocketed in 2014…but why?

How It’ll Work

Any addict that enters the Gloucester Police Station will immediately be paired with a volunteer, they’re being called angels by the GPD, to help them get on the path to sobriety. Since their initial announcement in late April, over forty people have already volunteered to be angels.

So, what do they do? They sit down with the addict seeking help and assess their treatment needs. That is to say, do they need detox and addiction treatment? Do they need only treatment? Are they even serious or simply looking for something to stave off withdrawals? Following initial treatment, what options are best? Do they need food, housing, or transportation? Basically, these initial volunteers will figure out how to best help each individual addict.

If someone does need detox, as is often the case with opioids, they may receive it from Lahey Health Behavioral Services or Addison Gilbert Hospital. Both these organizations have partnered with the Gloucester Police Department to “fast track” those who need help.

In addition to working with local hospitals and treatment centers, the GPD has started partnering with local drug stores to offer Narcan (naloxone) to addicts, their families, and first responders. These partnerships will provide free doses of the vital “anti-overdose” drug to those who need it most.

I like the sound of this approach! It’s bold, new, and looks like it just might work to help addicts. What about money though? Who’s going to pay for all this? After all, a medical detox and addiction treatment aren’t cheap.

Here’s where things get very interesting. Campanello plans to offset some of the cost of detox, treatment, and Narcan by using seized drug money. How ingenious is that!

In a statement, Campanello said, “We will save lives with the money from the pockets of those who would take them” (Boston.com).

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Public Reaction

As I mentioned above, this plan sounds amazing to me. What about the public though? What about those directly affected by addiction? What do they have to say about the “Gloucester plan?”

Well, so far, there’s been very positive feedback. Joanne Peterson, a support group facilitator in the Gloucester area, praised Campanello’s recognition of addiction as a disease. Jonathan Blodgett, the Essex County District Attorney, is looking forward to reading “the substantive and legal details,” according to a spokesperson. Kevin Norton, from Lahey Health Behavioral Services, praised the innovative nature of the program.

All of the above is to say nothing of the outpouring of support this program has received on Facebook, where Campanello made the initial announcement, and in comment sections on The Washington Times, Boston.com, and other news services.

Just how successful GPD’s program will be remains to be seen. One thing’s for sure though, their approach is unlike anything else being done in the country right now. Change is scary, but it’s also vital to overcoming addiction. Let’s hope this is the right kind of change.

Why are more and more pregnant women taking opioids?

New Jersey Laws Seek to End Heroin Epidemic

New Jersey Laws Target Opioids & Overdose

In the fight against heroin and prescription painkillers, few states have battled as hard as New Jersey. Often regarded as New York’s younger sibling, New Jersey has been in the limelight frequently over the past decade thanks to a skyrocketing number of opioid addicts.

Consider that upwards of 5,000 New Jersey residents have overdosed and died during the last decade.

christ christie
image via AdWeek

Consider that 741 people overdosed and died in 2013 alone. New Jersey officials say that number is likely to rise once 2014’s figures are released. So, what’s being done to stop this scourge of heroin and painkillers?

Well, New Jersey Governor Chris Christie has long been a vocal supporter of innovate approaches to treating substance abuse. He continued this patter when, on February fifth, he signed into law three bills aimed at increasing heroin and painkiller treatment.

The laws, which I’ll touch on below, are the first step in a revolutionary, statewide shift. New Jersey is poised to move from a state decimated by opioid addiction and overdose, to a state at the forefront of the medical and social treatment of addiction.

In fact, State Senator Joseph Vitale, who first introduced these bills, had the following to say about New Jersey and Christie –

“It’s been years since this [opioid addiction and overdose] has been a crisis. The solutions and the ways to treat people suffering from it are going to take time to implement, but these are significant steps” (NJ.com)

Learn why there’s no difference between pain pills and heroin

What Do The New Laws Say?

The bills that Gov. Christie signed into law promise real change in the often fraught world of opioid addiction. Sounds good to me! But what do they actually say? What specifically are these new laws?

The first law offers increased immunity to first responders who administer Narcan, a popular “anti-overdose” medication. These are people like police officers, paramedics, needle exchange program workers, and many others who interact frequently with heroin and painkiller addicts.

Narcan has a pretty good track record in saving New Jersey residents’ lives. Since March of 2014, when Narcan use first became popular, it’s reversed upwards of 800 overdoses. That’s 800 saved lives!

Gov. Christie, in a statement, had the following to say about Narcan –

“Today, we are cementing in our laws those same protections for our first responders who are doing this incredible, lifesaving work every day under our statewide Narcan program. By doing so, we will have an even greater ability to save lives, reverse the effects of overdose and prevent tragedies with this life-saving treatment” (NJ.com).

The second law will require treatment centers to submit regular performance reports to the Department of Human Services. This will help to streamline the care offered at rehabs across the state. This’ll also cut down on the use of non-evidence based practices. These are things like equine therapy, which, while certainly helpful, doesn’t have a scientific basis.

The third law requires state jails to offer addiction and mental health services to inmates. Inmates will now be offered treatment by “the agency with the most appropriate expertise and experience” (Bill S-2380).

Not only will this offer increased mental health and substance abuse treatment to inmates, it will also allow the Division of Mental Health and Addiction Services oversight in New Jersey’s jails. This is a wonderful step towards jails offering real rehabilitation, rather than simply housing criminals.

Michael Botticelli, the new White House Drug Czar, had the following to say about recent changes in how America is treating addiction –

“We have made important progress against the raise of prescription drug misuse and related deaths since we released our plan in 2011, but much more work lies ahead of us” (NJ.com).

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The Future of N.J. Drug Policy

Speaking of the continued work Botticelli mentioned above, New Jersey has many more drug reform bills currently in the state legislator.

State Senator Joseph Vitale didn’t only introduce the three bills Gov. Christie signed into law, he introduced a total of twenty-one bills this past fall. While a complete list of all twenty-one would be far too long for this article, find some below.

  • S-2366

This would require general practitioners to inform patients of the dangers inherent to various prescription drugs (notably many opioids).

  • S-2368

This would increase New Jersey state funding for addiction prevention by $5 million.

new jersey drug policy

  • S-1998 & A-3129

These would require all physicians to register for the Prescription Monitoring Program. This allows law enforcement to identify addicts going to multiple doctors and doctors who are overprescribing opioids.

  • S-2372 & A-1436

These would create a Statewide Opioid Law Enforcement Task Force. Their job would be to investigate and prosecute those involved in the distribution of opioids.

These would found the Behavioral Health Insurance Claim Advocacy Program, which would offer assistance and advocacy with insurance claims for those seeking addiction or mental illness treatment.

  • S-2377

This would require all colleges in New Jersey to offer substance abuse recovery housing options (think a “dry dorm,” but one that’s actually dry).

Click here to view a complete list of all the bills Vitale introduced!

Narcan Doesn’t Solve the Heroin Epidemic

Narcan Isn’t a Silver Bullet

Narcan, also know by its chemical name naloxone, is literally a lifesaver. It reverses the effects of opioids on people who overdose. The drug has gained popularity over the last few years and is being hailed by some as “the solution to heroin addiction.”

narcan
image via Wikimedia Commons

Sadly, this isn’t the case. While Narcan is extremely helpful in reversing overdoses, it isn’t a magic bullet. It saves lives, but it doesn’t heal them. To bring someone back from the hell of active addiction, fearless soul searching (aka treatment!) is needed.

That’s the gist of this article I recently stumbled upon. It’s a great primer on the benefits and drawbacks of Narcan.

So, what can this lifesaving chemical do and what can’t it do? More to the point, how can we help those suffering from addiction find long-term recovery? How can we offer them real hope?

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A REAL Solution

Naloxone is often the first step down the lifelong road of recovery. It’s just that, though, a first step. More is needed. Kathleen, a woman quoted in the above article, echoes this sentiment. She says,

“There are little windows of opportunity with an addict, little windows where I wake up and say, ‘I can’t f—king do this anymore. Either I got to die or please help me. That window will last for four hours. Then somebody will call and be like, ‘I got some s—t.'”

While Narcan can save a suffering addict’s life, while it can give them that window of opportunity, it doesn’t get them into treatment or a twelve-step fellowship. That comes from old-fashioned willingness.

It’s worth noting that, in America at least, there aren’t a ton of treatment options given to addicts who overdose. They’re generally brought back to consciousness in the ER, monitored for a few hours, and then sent on their way. They’re given contact numbers for local treatment centers and twelve-step supports, but that’s it.

What I’m proposing is that treatment centers partner with hospitals to provide the care these addicts so desperately need. Imagine if someone overdoses and is brought into a local Emergency Room. They’re stabilized and willing to seek help. How amazing would it be if there was an addiction specialist available to talk right away?

That would begin to change the cycle of overdose, relapse, overdose, relapse that so many addicts go through. To put it another way – that would facilitate recovery like nothing currently in place.

It’s important to note that I’m not dismissing Narcan. In fact, it has some amazing benefits. There’s a reason it’s now the first line of defense in our country’s war against heroin. Let’s examine what exactly those are.

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What Narcan Does

Naloxone is a pure opioid antagonist. That means it clears the body of all opioid molecules and reverses their effects in mere minutes. While naloxone has been around since the 1960’s, it’s only become popular in the last ten years.

drug overdose

Narcan can be administered orally, intravenously (IV), intramuscularly (IM), via an intranasal spray, and rectally. Its onset depends on the method of administration, but it generally takes effect within minutes.

An opioid overdose consists of things like extreme central nervous system and respiratory depression, decreased heartbeat, and dangerously low blood pressure. Naloxone reverses these symptoms as soon as it takes effect.

It then sends the users into opioid withdrawal, which isn’t pleasant. However, addicts are usually more likely to accept help while they’re detoxing (think that window of opportunity mentioned above).

Naloxone is now available without a prescription in many states. In fact, there are over 200 licensed naloxone distribution programs in the United States.

Learn what heroin withdrawal is really like

Narcan & Rehab = Changed Lives

Okay, Narcan has some major benefits. That much is plain to see. So, how do we take the next step? How do we move from using Narcan to save lives to implementing drug treatment options after an overdose?

As I mentioned above, the answer comes in the form of hospitals, police officers, EMT’s, and other first responders partnering with treatment centers. It’s one thing to save someone’s life. It’s another to give them their life back. Let’s start doing both!

Is Tramadol the next heroin?

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